WhOM: References

WhOM Tool Development & Evaluation

  1. Alimohammad S, Parvaneh S, Ghahari S, Saberi H, Yekaninejad MS, Miller WC. Translation and validation of the Farsi version of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure (WhOM-Farsi) in individuals with spinal cord injury. Disabil Health J 2016 Apr;9:265-71. doi:10.1016/j.dhjo.2015.09.004.
  2. Auger C, Demers L, Gélinas I, Routhier F, Mortenson WB, Miller WC. Reliability and validity of the telephone administration of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure (WhOM) for middle-aged and older users of power mobility devices. J Rehabil Med 2010;42:574-581. doi:10.2340/16501977-0557.
  3. Garden, JA (2009). Reliability and validity of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure (Masters dissertation). University of British Columbia. Retrieved from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/24/items/1.0067673.
  4. Miller WC, Garden J, Mortenson WB. Measurement properties of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure in individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2011;49:995-1000. doi:10.1038/sc.2011.45.
  5. Mortenson WB, Miller WC, Miller-Polgar J. Measuring wheelchair intervention outcomes: Development of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol 2007;2:275-285. doi:10.1080/17483100701475863.
  6. Parvenah S, Mortenson WB, Miller WC. Validating the Wheelchair Outcome Measure with residents of long term care. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol 2014;9:209-212. doi:10.3109/17483107.2013.769126.

WhOM Clinical Trials

  1. Auger C, Demers L, Gelinas I, Miller WC, Jutai JW, Noreau L. Life-space mobility of middle-aged and older adults at various stages of usage of power mobility devices. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:765-773. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2010.01.018.
  2. Desideri L, Trioschi D, Agusto R, Bizzarri M, Spagnolin G, Cantelli S, Paolini C, Malavasi M, Bitelli C. The provision of powered mobility devices in Italy: linking process with outcomes. Technologies 2016;4:31 doi: 10.3390/technologies4030031.
  3. Rushton PW, Miller WC, Mortenson WB, Garden J. Satisfaction with participation using a manual wheelchair among individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 2010;48:691-696. doi:10.1038/sc.2009.197.
  4. Sawatzky B, Denison I, Tawashy A. The Segway for people with disabilities: meeting clients’ mobility goals. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2009;88:484-490. doi:10.1097/PHM.0b013e3181909ef9.


  1. Harris A, Pinnington LL, Ward CD. Evaluating the impact of mobility-related assistive technology on the lives of disabled people.: A review of outcomes measure. Br J Occup Ther. 2005;68:553-558. doi:10.1177/030802260506801204.
  2. Kenny S, Gowran RJ. Outcome measures for wheelchair and seating provision: A critical appraisal. Br J Occup Ther 2014;77:67-77. doi:10.4276/030802214X13916969447119.
  3. Mortenson WB, Miller WC, Auger C. Issues for the selection of wheelchair-specific activity and participation outcome measures: a review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008;89:1177-1186. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2008.01.010.
  4. Wheelchair outcome tool briefs. Int J MS Care, Fall 2005;7:111-114.

‘WhOM-YP’ Tool Development & Evaluation

  1. Field, D. A., & Miller, W. C. (2022). The Wheelchair Outcome Measure for Young People (WhOM-YP): Modification and metrics for children and youth with mobility limitations. Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology, 17(2), 192–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/17483107.2020.1774811
  2. Field D, Miller WC, Corra H, Goodmanson S. The Wheelchair Outcome Measure for Young People: On-going development and clinical usefulness. 32nd International Seating Symposium, March 1-4, 2016, Vancouver BC: 259-60.
  3. Field D, Miller WC. Development of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure for Adolescents. 28th International Seating Symposium, March 7-9, 2012, Vancouver BC: 185-86.